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القواعد العامة لكتابة موضوع التعبير

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل

القواعد العامة لكتابة موضوع التعبير

مُساهمة من طرف مسترعطيه الخضرى في الجمعة فبراير 17, 2012 8:54 pm


http://qallen.hooxs.com/t159-topic#303
القواعد العامة لكتابة موضوع التعبير
يعتبر موضوع التعبير من أصعب الاسئلة التي تواجه طالب الثانوية العامة ولذا كان الحصول علي درجة التعبير كاملة ليس بالامر اليسير. وبناء علي ذلك فقد خصصت له هذا الجزء ليكون عون للطالب ووسيلة للتدريب المكثف علي كتابة موضوع التعبير بحيث يكتسب الطالب الخبرة اللازمة للتعامل مع هذا السؤال وكذلك يكتسب مهارة الكتابة . وهذا الأمر لا يتحقق الا بالتدريب المستمر علي كتابة موضوعات التعبير ونحن هنا نوفر هذه الفرصة وعليك أن تتبع التالي جيدا :
أولا :- الالمام بقدر معقول من الثروة اللغوية مع حفظ ما يتسني لك من التعبيرات الشائعة.
ثانيا :- موضوع التعبير هو عبارة عن عدة جمل مترابطة في المعني ولذا كان لزاما عليك ان تعرف البناء السليم للجملة الخبرية. (كل ما ذكر فى الترجمة)
ثالثا :- يجب مراعاة القواعد العامة لكتابة موضوع التعبير وهي :
1- ان تترك مسافة تعادل خمسة احرف في السطر الاول فقط من الموضوع.
2- ان تبدأ كل جملة بحرف Capital كبير وواضح.
3- ان تضع (.) واضحة في نهاية كل جملة .
4- ابدأ الموضع بـ topic sentence أي جملة رئيسية نحتوي في مجملها علي فكرة الموضوع.
5- أن تراعي الترابط والتنسيق العام بين أفكار الموضوع .
6- ان تستخدم الزمن الصحيح والمناسب لنوعية الموضوع الذي تكتبه فقد يكون في المضارع وقد يكون في الماضي أو المستقبل أو خليط بينهم.
7- تجنب استخدام الجمل المعقدة والتي تحتوي علي مفردات وتركيبات صعبة قد توقعك في أخطاء أنت في غني عنها وعليك باستخدام الجمل البسيطة والسهلة في المعني.
8- خصص صفحة كاملة أو صفحتين للموضوع في ورقة الامتحان ويفضل دائما أن تترك سطر عند كتابة الموضوع.
9- اجتهد في تحسين خطك وذلك بترك مسافة بين كل كلمة واخري فهذا يعطي انطبعا طيبا للمصحح ويسهل عليه فهم ما تريد التعبير عنه .


1 - البداية (المقدمة) 2- النهاية (the end)
3- الموضوع (subject matter)
1) طرق كتابة بداية الموضوع :
يمكنك أن تبدأ بــ
1- جملة عامة عن الموضوع يفهم القارئ من خلالها ما يدور حوله الموضوع.
2- حكمة أو مثل أو حكاية.
3- بتعريف الموضوع .
4- باقتباس.
2) أما عن كتابة الموضوع ينبغي مراعاة الاتي :
1- يجب أن تكون الجمل واضحة ومتوازنة .
2- تجنب الجمل الطويلة بشكل عام . وأن تختار الكلمات المناسبة للتعبير عن الفكرة وتجنب استخدام الكلمات الغريبة الغير مفهومة.
3- الاستخدام الصحيح لعلامات الترقيم (punctuation) .
4- تجنب الكتابة بضمير المتكلم الا إذا كان الموضوع يخص شخص لكاتب الموضوع مثل موضوع My favourite game – لعبتي المفضلة.
3- الخاتمة The end :
غالبا ما تتضمن الخاتمة ملخصا (summary) للآراء التي عبرت عنها أو النتيجة التي وصلت إليها والنتيجة هذه قد تكون نصيحة أو تحذير أو اعطاء رأي أو غيره.
4- ولما كانت البداية الجيدة تعطي أنطباعا جيدا للمصحح ، رأيت أن أقدم لك هذه المجموعة من التعبيرات الشائعة وعليك أن تحفظها لتكون عونا بشرط أن توظفها في مكانها الصحيح وفي الموضوع الذي تتناسب معه.
جمل افتتاحية تصلح لموضوعات نافعة

ملحوظة : نضع في الفراغ الموجود في هذه التعبيرات كلمة او عبارة تمثل الموضوع :
1) We all agree that …………….... is one of the most important things in our life and has it is vital role nowadays .
 نتفق جميعا أن ............... واحد من أهم الأشياء في حياتنا وله دورا حيويا هذه الايام.
2) We all admit the importance and necessity of ……………….... in our life.
 كلنا نقر باهمية وضرورة .......................... في حياتنا
3) No wonder if we say that ……. has (have) its good and positive effects on us.
 لا عجب إذا قلنا أن ............................ له أثار طيبة وايجابية علينا جميعا.
4) We all agree that …. is very necessary and plays an important part in our life.
 كلنا نتفق أن .......................... ضروري جدا ويلعب دورا هاما في حياتنا .
5) We should put into consideration that ……………… has (have) become one of the most important things in everyone's life.
 يجب أن نضع في الاعتبار ان ............... قد أصبح واحدا من أهم الاشياء في حياة كل شخص.
7) In my opinion, ………………. is really important and necessary nowadays. It may have good and positive effects on all of us. I think so because ……… may bring all the good to our society.
 في رأيي ................. هو حقا مهم وضروري هذه الايام وقد يكون له الاثر الطيب والايجابي علينا جميعا وانني اعتقد ذلك لان ......................... قد يعود بالنفع علي مجتمعنا.
جمل وتعبيرات تصلح مقدمات لموضوعات ضارة أو مشاكل

1) I see that ........................... stands for an obstacle in the way of our progress so our state spares no effort to put an end to it.

 انني اري ان ........... يمثل عقبة في طريق تقدمنا ومن ثم فدولتنا لا تدخر جهدا لكي تضع حدا له.
2) In my point of view, ……………..... is really serious and harmful nowadays. It may have bad and negative effects on all of us. I think so because ............ may bring all the evil to our society.
من وجهة نظري ............... هو فعلا خطير وضار هذه الايام وقد يكون له اثار سيئة وسلبية علينا جميعا . وانني اعتقد ذلك لان ................. قد يجلب الشرور إلي مجتمعنا.
3) There is no doubt that ………….... is one of the most dangerous phenomena in our life and has its bad and negative effects nowadays.
مما لاشك فيه أن ...................... هي واحدة من أخطر الظواهر في حياتنا وكذلك له اثاره السيئة والسلبية في وقتنا هذا.
4) Frankly Speaking, ………………... is one of the worst things in our life. Thus, our state spares no effort to fight it.
بصراحة القول ................ واحدا من أسوأ الأشياء في حياتنا . وعلي هذا فان دولتنا لا تدخر جهدا لكي تكافح وتقاوم هذا الشئ.

كيف اربط بين أفكار وجمل الموضوع ؟

خامسا : هناك بعض الروابط والكلمات والمصطلحات التي تكتب مع بداية كل فكرة جديدة وتستخدم لربط الموضوع مثل :-
من ناحية أخري One the other hand من ناحية On one hand
علاوة علي ذلك Moreover = further more بالاضافة إلي ذلك In addition to that
وبناء علي ذلك Thus وفوق كل ذلك Above all
في نفس الوقت At the same time ومن ثم Hence
اكثر من ذلك More than that ونتيجة لذلك And as a result
نتيجة لذلك Consequently مضافا إلي ذلك Over and above


كيف أختم موضوع التعبير

سادسا : ثم ننهي الموضوع باحدي هذه العبارات :
 Finally , it is quite clear that …….(الموضوع) ….. Is really……(صفة)..
 In brief, I think that ……….… is really ………………
 To sum up , one can say that ……… is really ……………









الموضوع الايجابي

I don't know where to begin because this matter occupied my attention but can we imagine life in the absence of......الموضوع.........? In my opinion , Id like to say that ………الموضوع….....is really necessary nowadays and may have good and positive effects on all of us . I think so because …الموضوع…….may bring all the good to our society . To begin with , I'd like to say that , we Egyptians always react well to what is good and react badly to what is bad . Thus we all agree to and encourage……الموضوع…………
In fact , it's impossible to lead a happy life without……الموضوع………..as it is one of our chief sources of wealth . with the help of …الموضوع……we can realize progress and development .The government must exploit all our natural resources and does its best to encourage…الموضوع …. to raise the standard living of citizens. We should put into consideration that ………الموضوع…….. has ( have ) become one of the most desirable topics in our society. No wonder if we say that ……الموضوع……. has its good and positive effects on us . …………الموضوع….. is considered an important step to improve and develop one society .We all agree that ………الموضوع……is one of the most important things in our life and has its vital role nowadays .
الموضوع السلبي

I don't know where to begin because this matter occupied my attention as it is one of the most serious problems which threatens our life at present .It's out of discussion that the problem of ……الموضوع ….. .doesn't bring happiness and development to our society
We must exploit all our natural resources and do our best to find suitable answers to …الموضوع ….In my opinion this problem hinder progress and development.
At my point of view , I believe that……الموضوع….. is really serious and harmful and may have bad and negative effects on all of us . I see that ……الموضوع……….stands for an obstacle in the way of our progress , hence our state spares no effort to put an end to it . On one hand I think that one should unite , co-operate and stand , shoulder to shoulder against ………الموضوع …….. . On the other hand the government must try to overcame this serious problem by finding the best solutions .one of the most important solution to this problem is that all members of the society must participate in putting an end to this serious problem.


عبارات تصلح لموضوعات التعبير (تحفظ)

 Businessmen must participate in setting up projects.
 علي رجال الاعمال المساهمة في انشاء المشروعات.
 Production goes side by side with consumption.
 يسير الانتاج جنبا إلي جنب مع الاستهلاك.
 Smoking is a bad habit and we must give it up.
 التدخين عادة سيئة ويجب الاقلاع عنها
 One of the greatest civilization in the history of the world.
 احدي أعظم الحضارات في العالم
 It's out of discussion that … doesn't always bring …..
 بلا ريب أن ...... لا تجلب دائما
 We should do our best to find suitable answers to ……..
 يجب أن نبذل قصاري جهدنا لايجاد حلول لـــ
 In fact. It's impossible to lead a happy life without…….
 في الواقع أنه من المستحيل عيش حياة هنية بدون ........
 The press plays an important role in forming public awareness.
 تلعب الصحافة دورا هاما في تكوين الوعي القومي
 We seek peace for the welfare and happiness of man
 نحن نبحث عن السلام من أجل رفاهية وسعادة الانسان
 We must exploit all our natural resource.
 يجب ان نستغل كل مواردنا الطبيعية.
 Illiteracy and unemployment result in the spread of crime.
 ينتج عن الامية والبطالة انتشار الجريمة.
 To strengthen out ties with other countries
 يقوي علاقاتنا مع الاقطار الاخري.
 We look forward to the time when peace prevails.
 نتطلع إلي الوقت الذي يحل فيه السلام.
 Can you imagine life in the absence of…..?
 هل لك ان تتخيل الحياة في غياب ........؟
 Is one of our chief sources of wealth.
 ..... هي أحدي المصادر الاساسية للثروة.
 Great progress will be made in the field of ………
 سيحدث تقدم هائل في مجال ........
 It teaches us discipline and co-operation ……
 تعلمنا النظام والتعامل.
 A revolution of information resources
 ثورة في مصادر المعرفة
 We are indebted to him for his discoveries
 مدينون له لاكتشافاته
 To improve our standard of living
 لرفع مستوي معيشتنا (لتحسين)
 To stand against war and terrorism
 نقف ضد الحرب والارهاب
 I'm determined to make my way
 عقدت العزم علي أن اشق طريقي إلي النجاح
 You have to face both alternatives
 عليك بمواجهة كلا الاحمالين
 I don't known where to begin
 لا اعرف من اين ابدأ
 Cleanliness is next to godliness
 النظافة من الايمان
 This matter occupied my attention
 لقد شغلتني هذه المسألة
 To enrich their knowledge
 لاثراء معرفتهم
 For the sake of our country
 لصالح بلادنا
 Upgrading education
 النهوض بالتعليم
 To take into account
 يأخذ في الأعتبار
 To create good citizens
 لخلق مواطنين صالحين
 Good work tells in the end
 العمل الطيب يظهر اثر في النهاية
 I think better of it
 ساعيد النظر في ذلك
 Right habits and moralities
 العادات والاخلاق الصحيحة
 Help me understand
 يساعدني علي الفهم
 We are grateful
 نحن شاكرين لــــ
 There is a radical change in
 يوجد تغير جذري في
 Achieving safety for citizens
 تحقيق الامن للمواطنين
 Social and political rights
 الحقوق الاجتماعية والسياسية
 I look forward to traveling abroad
 اتطلع إلي السفر إلي الخاج
 To reform all of education
 اصلاح جميع مراحل التعليم
 Up-to-date equipment
 معدات حديثة
 To achieve self-sufficiency
 لتحقيق الاكتفاء الذاتي
 Construction flyovers and tunnels
 نشيد الكباري والانفاق
 Establishing child libraries
 انشاء مكتبات الاطفال
 Everywhere all over the country
 في كل مكان في انحاء القطر
 In the course of the last years
 في غضون الاعوام الاخيرة
 Practical steps have been taken
 خطوات عملية قد اتخذت
 For the good of the society
 من أجل منفعة المجتمع
 Thanks to science and technology
 يفضل العلم والتكنولوجيا
 Every branch of knowledge
 كل فروع المعرفة
 General knowledge
 المعرفة العامة
 Sense of belonging
 الشعور بالانتماء
 Sense of responsibility
 الشعور بالمسئولية
 Sense of loyalty
 الشعور بالولاء
 International relations
 علاقات دولية
 Sense of duty
 الشعور بالواجب
 Public relations
 علاقات جماهيرية
 Satellite networks
 شبكات الاقمار الصناعية
 In public
 علانية
 Scientific thinking
 التفكير العلمي
 In practical fields
 في المجالات العلمية
 A good social position
 مكانة اجتماعية مرموقة
 Great achievements
 انجازات عظيمة
 To double production
 نضاعف الانتاج
 To achieve prosperity and welfare
 لتحقيق الرخاء والرفاهية
 To develop the individual awareness
 لتنمية الوعي الفردي
 To work for peace
 نعمل من أجل السلام
 To devote (himself)to
 يكرس حياته لـــ
 To work seriously and sincerely
 يعمل بجد وإخلاص
 To spare no effort
 لا يدخر وسعا
 To increase our exports
 نزيد صادراتنا
 For the good of
 لصالح
 The problem of over – crowdedness
 مشكلة شدة الازدحام
 The traffic jam
 زحمة المرور
 Everywhere and in all ages
 في كل مكان وفي كل العصور
 We have to stand firmly against
 علينا أن نقف بحزم ضد
 I'll see you from time to time
 ساراك من ان إلي أخر
 I have had a real good time
 لقد قضيت وقتا ممتعا
 You are welcome, at all times
 مرحبا بك في كل وقت
 I can't tell which is which
 لا استطيع أن أميز هذه من تلك
 To the best of my ability
 ما وسعني من جهد
 See how I befriend you
 انظر كيف اتودد إليك
 Thanks to your efforts
 بفضل جهودكم
 For the bigger purpose
 من أجل غرض أهم
 He is of high birth
 أنه من أصل طيب
 Make the most of your time
 استغل معظم وقتك
 Learn that by heart
 احفظ هذا عن ظهر قلب
 Habit ever remains
 من شب علي شئ شاب عليه
 Here you are a list of the places we'll be visiting
 ها هي قائمة بالاماكن التي سنزورها
 There is room for improvement
 هناك مجال للتحسين
 An important earner
 مصدر هام للدخل
 In an attempt to
 في محاولة لــــ
 I agree with you up to a point
 اتفق معك جزئيا (وليس تماما)
 Be about to (end)
 علي وشك الانتهاء
 Owe (his life) to
 يدين (بحياته)
 Make a profit
 يحصل علي أرباح
 Follow my example
 يحذو حذو
 A solution to the problem
 حل للمشكلة
 At an incredible rate
 بمعدل لا يصدق
 Free of charge
 مجاني
 To live and learn
 كلما عاش كلما تعلم امثر
 To turn over a new leaf
 يبدأ في التصرف بطريقة أفضل
 Sphere of influence
 منطقة نفوذ
 Back on track
 انتكاسة
 Escalation of violence
 تصعيد العنف
 No fly zone
 منطقة حظر جوى
 Condemned religious extremism
 التطرف الديني
 One of the issues that had been settled
 احدي القرارات التي اتخذت
 Solid national unity
 وحدة وطنية متماسكة
 High time
 الوقت المناسب
 Outstanding opportunity
 فرصة رائعة
 Stage of privatization
 مرحلة الخصخصة
 Supply and demand
 العرض والطلب
 Plunge the Middle East into turmoil
 يدفع بمنطقة الشرق الأوسط إلي دوامات العنف
 Restoring process to the right track
 أعادة عملية السلام إلي مسارها الصحيح
 Top the agenda of talks
 علي رأس قائمة المباحثات
تعبيرات Expressions

The effective means الوسيلة الفعالة The needs of people احتياجات الشعب
Arab solidarity التضامن العربي The corner stone حجر الزاوية
Expert great efforts يبذل جهود عظيمة To close the ranks لجمع الشمل
Step by step خطوة بخطوة Strong ties روابط قوية
Cultural event حدث ثقافي She is good humoured انها هادئة الطبع
A peace loving محبة للسلام Opposite direction الاتجاه المضاد
With all means بكل السبل In co-operation with بالتعاون مع
The privatization برنامج الخصخصة Monopoly of arms احتكار السلاح
The Palestine القضية الفلسطينة I'm not in a hurry لست متعجلا
Maximum income اعلى دخل Take into consideration ياخذ فى الاعتبار
Day of rage انه موضوع الساعة It is to your interest انه من مصلحتك
Day of rage يوم الغضب I can't help it ماباليد حيلة
Thanks to بفضل Don't imagine لاتكن خياليا
In enriching فى اثراء In this age فى هذا العصر
The only way السبيل الوحيد To cope with نساير
With the aim of بهدف Sever short age نقص حاد
Mixed نتائج متضاربة The right to vote حق الانتخاب
Initiative مبادرة Sanctions العقوبات
Mother tongue اللغة الام Communicate with يتصل ب
Cairo international book fair
معرض القاهرة الدولى للكتاب Setback انتكاسة
In defence دفاعا عن
Make contributions يقدم اسهامات Human rights حقوق الانسان
In favour of لصالح\مؤيد Hold demonstration يقوم بمظاهرة
Catch up with يساير -يواكب Pay attention to ينتبة الى
At an alarming rate بمعدل مزعج Side by side جنبا الى جنب
Great novelist روائى عظيم Aware of واع ل-مطلع على
Artificial lake بحيرة اصطناعية The importance اهمية
Hard work عمل شاق Beauty lovers عشاق الجمال
For better , for worse
في السراء والضراء misunderstanding سوء الفهم
Daily needs احتياجات يومية
Primary education تعليم ابتدائى in charge of =responsible for مسئول عن
General education تعليم عام University graduates خريجي الجامعات
Free education تعليم مجانى Secondary education تعليم ثانوى
Natural disasters كوارث طبيعية Open education تعليم مفتوح
Masters of art اساتذة الفن Spiritual values القيم الروحية
Economic program برنامج اقتصادى Cast his vote يدلي بصوته
Land reclamation استصلاح الاراضى Self-confidence الثقة بالنفس
Land for peace الارض مقابل السلام global economy الاقتصاد العالمي
Encourage youth تشجيع الشباب Self-sufficiency الاكتفاءالذاتي
Cairo economic conference
مؤتمر القاهرة الاقتصادى Foreign investment الاستثمار الاجنبى
National project المشروعات القومية Conquering desert غزو الصحراء
Deviation الانحراف The increase of production زيادة الانتاج
Peace process عملية السلام Free trade area منطقة تجارية حرة
Make great efforts يبذل جهود عظيمة Recreation ترويج
Morals=ethics اخلاق Settle disputes تسوية الخلافات
Evidence = proof دليل - برهان Political attitude الموقف السياسى
Knowledge is power المعرفة قوة Religious programmes البرامج الدينية
Local articles السلع المحلية The future generations اجيال المستقبل
Any time you wish في أي وقت تشاء She did her best لقد بذلت قصارى جهدها
Commit oneself يفوض امره إلي الله A long the lines of هذا يفى بالغرض
Ask for an explanation يستوضح عن Following the example of اسوة بـ
With the exception باستثناء A mean to an end وسيلة الى غاية
Good manners السلوك الحضاري Listen secretly استمع خلسة الى
Arab league جامعة الدول العربية Call for help استغاث
Resulting from ناتجة من Seize power يستولى على السلطة
Resulting in يؤدي إلي Reading for all القراءة للجميع
Education aids الوسائل التعليمية Present policy السياسة الحالية
Land reclamation استصلاح الاراضى Less productive اقل انتاج
Two-edge weapon سلاح ذو حدين Private firms المؤسسات الخاصة
Trade liberation تحرير التجارة Industrial projects مشروعات صناعية
Lick his wounds يضمد جراحة Noble winner فائز بجائزة نوبل
Opinion polls استطلاع الراى Common property ملكية مشتركة
Fruitful efforts جهود مثمرة Scholarship منحة دراسية
International waters مياة دولية Search and rescue بحث وانقاذ
On board على متن السفينة/الطائرة To bring يسترجع
Will do more يفيد بشكل اكبر Running for president مرشح لمنصب الرئيس
Thanks to بفضل Everlasting peace سلام دائم
Anti-Islamic تتعارض مع الاسلام Social services خدمات اجتماعية
Living conditions احوال المعيشة Egyptian make صناعة مصرية
Pioneering role دور رائد Sooner or later اجلا ام عاجلا
Drug addiction ادمان المخدرات The value of time قيمة الوقت
Make good يحسن استغلال National duty واجب وطنى
Double our efforts نضاعف من جهدنا Hardships الصعاب- الشدائد
Ways of development
سبل التطوروالتنمية Different fiels مجالات شتى
National unity الوحدة الوطنية
Work together نعمل جميعا Open door policy سياسة الانفتاح
Population explosionالانفجار السكانى Skilled labour الايدى الماهرة
Source of energy مصادر الطاقة Common market سوق مشتركة
Peace treaty معاهدة السلام Population growth النموا لسكانى
Human civilization الحضارة البشرية Self sufficiency اكتفاء ذاتى
Peaceful co-existenceالتعايش السلمى A runway victory نصر حاسم
Peace efforts جهود السلام Coming generations الاجيال القادمة
Prosperous society مجتمع الرخاء Imported products المنتجات المستوردة
Developed countries بلاد متقدمة Labour force القوى العاملة
Food security الامن الغذائى Developing countries بلاد نامية
Air pollution تلوث الهواء Advanced countries بلاد متحضرة


Letter Writing

الشكل العام للخطاب مهم جدا:

Dear + اسم المرسل إليه
المقدمــة
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الموضوع
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الخاتمة
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Yours sincerely,
اسم المرسل

Introductions (مقدمات الخطاب)

• I hope you and your family are fine.
•I’d like to invite you to…………...
•I’m writing to thank you for (inviting me to………….)
•It gives me the greatest pleasure to send you this letter………….
•I have the pleasure to accept your kind invitation.
•I am so sorry I won’t be able to accept your invitation because…
• I was so sorry to hear that you (had an accident….)
• I’d like to congratulate you on your (success / marriage / birthday)
• I am very thankful to you for (your nice present / your kind offer)
• Would you please allow me to invite you to………..…
• I am so sorry to hear about your illness


Conclusions (خاتمـة الخطاب)
•I’m looking forward to hearing from you soon.
•With my best wishes. •Give my love to all your family.
•Remember me to all at home. •I am looking forward to hearing from you.

1. Write a letter of about 100 words to an American pen friend, John, asking him to pay a visit to Gazza Strip to see the traces of the Israeli aggression on it. Your name is Ahmed Ali.
Dear: John,
How are you? I hope you are well. In fact, I'm writing you this letter to ask you to pay a visit to Gaza Strip to see the traces of the Israeli aggression on it. The Palestinians' life has become a hell because of the daily atrocities they are subjected to. The Israeli soldiers treat them in a savage way. They deprive them of their basic rights. Moreover, they destroy their houses. A lot of people have become homeless. Many families have lost their breadwinner. A lot of children have become orphans. Wives have become widows. The international community must do something to put an end to the massacres committed by the Israelis. If you go to Gaza Strip, you will see all these things which no human being approves of.
I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.
Yours, Ahmed Ali
2. Write an e-mail to your friend Omar Salem saying why cleanliness is a must today. Your name is Hassan Gamal.
Dear: Omar Salem,
How are you? I hope you are well. In fact, I'm writing you this e-mail to say why cleanliness is a must today. Every year we hear of new diseases and epidemics which spread like fire all over the world. I think the main cause of such epidemics is that most people don't follow the rules of hygiene and sanitation. You find people who throw rubbish in the streets instead of throwing it in the litter baskets which are found everywhere. This attracts flies and germs. Some people don't care about the cleanliness of public gardens, schools, hospitals and the governmental offices. This, of course, contributes greatly to the spread of diseases. I think you agree with me when I say that all human beings should pay attention to personal cleanliness and public cleanliness so that we can put an end to the spread of infectious diseases.
I'm looking forward to hearing from you soon.
Yours, Hassan


نموذج عملي مبسط للرسالة

Dear…فلان……
How nice it was to here from you. I hope that you are well and sound better .No one knows how happy and pleased I am the moment I am writing to you .So please allow me to ………………………………………….….…………… ……………………………………………………………..…………………الموضوع......................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ I am looking forward to hearing from you.
Best wishes
Yours,
..........فلان...........
عزيزى الطالب:
احفظ هذا الشكل الذى امامك الان و جمل المقدمة والخاتمة والتوقيع واكتبه فى اى رسالة لكن لاحظ عبارة happy and pleasedتتغير الى sad and sorry حسب المناسبة ثم تبدا كتابة الموضوع بعد المقدمة الموجودة فى النموذج على النحو التالى :
1- so please allow me to express my feelings of happiness (sadness) concerning your……………………….تهنئة او تعزية
2- so please allow me to invite you to…………..…………دعوة
3- so please allow me to congratulate you on ………………تهنئة
4- so please allow me to borrow your………………...…..استعارة
5- so please allow me to express my gratitude to you.شكر...........
6- so please allow me to express my apology to you for…..اعتذار
7- so please allow me to tell you that…………………..….اخبار
الان ماذا افعل بعد ان تعلمت الشكل العام للرسالة (مقدمة وموضوع وخاتمة) ؟
1- خصص صفحة باكملها للرسالة.
2- اجتهد فى تحسين الخط فانة وسيلتك لتوصيل ما تريد التعبير عنه للمصحح.
3- اكتب على سطر واترك سطر.
Common Mistakes in Writing
أخطاء شائعة فى الكتابة

• عندما تريد أن تقول : يوجد الكثير من........
نستخدم: There are a lot of في حالة الأسماء الجمع التي تعد و نستخدم There is a lot of في حالة الأسماء التي لا تعد و المفرد
•There are a lot of computers in our schools nowadays.
•There is a lot of evidence that smoking is harmful to health.
 هناك فرق بين
there هناك (ظرف مكان) their ضمير ملكية
•The boys studied their lessons well.
•Can you see the tree over there?
• الكلمات الآتية مفرد و لا تجمع:
Equipment evidence information
•The equipment we use in our schools is modern.
• لا نستخدم حرف جر مع:
Everywhere, anywhere, next week, last week
•Computers are used everywhere nowadays.
•I will travel to London next week.
• في حالة استخدام which, who, that يحذف الضمير الذي حلت محله هذه الكلمات
•The food that we eat should be healthy.
لاحظ حذف الضمير “it” بعد الفعل eat في الجمل السابقة
• عند ترجمة جملة فيها "حقق إنجازات"نقول made achievements
•Scientists made great achievements in the 20th century.
• عند ترجمة جملة فيها "يؤثر في"نقول إما have an effect on أو affect + obj
•Smoking has a bad effect on health.
•Smoking affects health badly.
• هناك فرق بين
Peace سلام piece قطعة
•Egypt plays a great role in making peace in the Middle East.
• الكلمات الدالة على الجنسية تبدأ بحرف Capital
•The government provides health care for all Egyptians.
• ضمائر الملكية التي لا يتبعها اسم هي:
Mine, hers, yours, ours, theirs
•This is my book, it’s not yours.
لاحظ أن its هو ضمير ملكية يأتي بعده الاسم:
•A lot of tourists visit Egypt to enjoy its beautiful weather.
و لاحظ أن it's هي اختصار it is / it has
•It’s raining now.
•It’s written in English.
•It’s the most beautiful garden I have ever seen.
الكلمات الآتية يشار إليها بضمير جمع :
someone/ somebody/ everyone/ everybody/ anyone / anybody / no one / nobody
•Everyone should do their best so that Egypt can keep up with advanced countries.
عند كتابة خطاب لاحظ أن الجمل الآتية هي الصحيحة :
•I am writing this letter to thank …
•I am waiting for your reply.
لاحظ أن الفعل enjoy لا يستخدم معه حرف جر
•She enjoys playing tennis.

لاحظ أن الفعل teach بمعني "يعلم " أو "يدرس" و يأتي منها كلمة teacher
لاحظ أن الفعل learn بمعني "يتعلم " أو و يأتي منها كلمة learner (متعلم/ دارس)
•Schools teach us English.
•We learn English at school.
لاحظ أن فعل to be لا يستخدم إلا في ثلاث حالات فقط هي :
1) في تكوين زمن المضارع المستمر و الماضي المستمر
•They are building a new road.
•She was listening to the news.
2) في تكوين المبني للمجهول
•The city was destroyed by the earthquake.
3) كفعل أساسي في الجملة
The weather was beautiful yesterday.
لاحظ أن كلمة means تستخدم في المفرد و الجمع بنفس الهجاء و في حالة المفرد تسبقها الأداة :a
•Television is a means of communication.
•Buses and trains are means of transport.
الجملة التي تبدأ بفعل مضاف له ing يأتي معها الفعل مفرد:
•Learning foreign languages is useful.
•Doing sports helps us to get fit.
لاحظ ما يلي :
With the help of………… بمساعدة .In this way………بهذه الطريقة..
One of the advantages of ------------ is that ------------



هذا بحث مبسط غرضه تصحيح الأخطاء التى يقع فيها الطلاب عند الكتابة

أولا : أخطاء علامات الترقيم punctuation
1-نجد الطالب يبدأ الجملة بحرف small ويستخدم ال capital فى غير مكانه وقد ينهى الجملة بفاصلة ويختم السؤال بنقطة يعنى فوضى.
لازم الطالب يعرف أن :
أول حرف فى الجملة لازم يبدأ ب capital مثلا مش ينفع اكتب كده he is ill. لازم اكتبها كده : He is ill.
 الضمير ( أنا I) يكون هكذا capital فى أى مكان فى الجملة.
 أسماء الايام والشهور والاشخاص والبلاد والوزارات واللغات والجنسيات والبحار والانهار والمحيطات والقنوات والخلجان والسدود والواحات و الجبال والكتب والصحف ولفظ الجلالة God وضمائره والألقاب كلها تبدأ بحرف .capital
 ننهى الجملة بنقطة.
 ننهى السؤال بعلامة استفهام.
 بعد Yes او No نضع فاصلة وكذلك قبل الكلام المباشر وعند مخاطبة شخص وللفصل بين مجموعة من الكلمات فى قائمة من نوع واحد.
 وعلامة التعجب بعد التعجب .What a good pen !
 علامات التنصيص " " فى الاسلوب المباشر.
 -ال apostrophe للملكية: سيارة عمر Omar's car ولو الاسم منتهى ب s نضع ' فقط.


ثانيا / أخطاء الجرامر وهذه كثيرة جدا جدا ومنها :

1- كتابه الجملة بدون فعل وهذا لاعتقاد الطالب انه مادامت الجمله فى العربى مش فيها فعل (الجمل الاسمية طبعا) يبقى فى الانجليزى نفس الوضع . طبعا الكلام ده غلط لأن لازم الجملة فى الانجليزى يكون فيها فعل لذلك اذا لم تجد فعل فى الجملة العربى التى تترجمها الى انجليزى استخدم من عندك احد افعال verb to be . مثلا بعض الطلبة عاوز يقول : مصر احسن بلد فى العالم / يروح كاتب : Egypt the best country in the world نقوله لا ناقصة حاجة مفروض تقول Egypt is the best country in the world.

2- عدم استخدام a / an حينما يكون ضرورى استخدامهم مثلا الطالب يريد ان يقول : اشتريت كتابا يكتبها هكذا I bought book.
نقول له الجملة ناقصة هيقول ناقصة اية؟ نقوله كلمة كتابا دى اسم مفرد معدود نكرة صح؟ يبقى لازم نحط قبلها اداة نكرة a مع الاسم البادئ بحرف ساكن و an مع البادئ بحرف متحرك يبقى الصح انه يقول I bought a book.

3-الاستخدام الخطأ ل the فكثير من الطلاب يستخدمها قبل كلمات لا تأخذ the ولذلك ننصح الطالب بمراجعة استخدامات theومتى لا تستخدم.
تذكر ان the لاتستخدم قبل الالعاب الرياضية football وليس the football ولاتستخدم قبل اسماء المواد الدراسية ولا المواد الخام ولا الاسماء المعنوية ولا اسماء الوجبات ولا اسماء اللغات ولا قبل كلمة home ولا قبل كلمة work بمعنى العمل ولا تستخدم قبل اسماء الاشخاص والبلاد الا المستثنى من هذه القاعدة ولا قبل الاسم الجمع الذى يشير الى شيئ عام غير محدد اما ان اشار الى شيئ محدد او مخصص يسبق ب .the

4-الاستخدام الخاطئ لترجمة الافعال التى تتبع بحرف جر فى اللغة العربية بينما هذه الافعال لا تأخذ حرف جر فى الانجليزية وذلك لاختلاف طبيعة كل لغة عن الاخرى واليك هذه الأمثلة:
* يتمتع ب enjoy وليس enjoy with كما يكتبها كثير من الطلاب وهذا خطأ أكيد.
*يحتفل ب celebrate * يخاطر ب risk * يتغلب على overcome * يجيب على answer * يقترب من approach *ينتهى من finish
*يصل الى reach لكن arrive at/ arrive in * يسمح ل let * يؤثر على affect *

5- من الخطأ العجيب استخدام to بعد الاقعال الناقصة يعنى مش ينفع اقول will to ده خطأ فادح.

6-استخدام verb to be قبل كل الافعال بدون تمييز مثلا تلاقى طالب كاتب : The government is pays attention to developing education طبعا غلطة لا تغتفر لابد ان يعرف الطالب استخدامات verb to be كفعل اساسى فى الجملة (مفيش معاه فعل تانى) بمعنى (يكون) و أحيانا بمعنى (موجود) وفى هذه الحالة يأتى بعد صفة He is ill. او اسم He is a doctor. او ظرف مكان I am here. ...إلخ
ويستخدم ايضا كفعل مساعد فى تكوين الازمنة المستمرة I am writing a letter now. وفى المبنى للمجهول Football is played by me every day.

7- ومن الاخطاء الغريبة ان بعض الطلاب يستهل الجملة بالاسم وبعده الضمير وهذا خطأ انظر الى هذه الجملة:
Ahmed he is nice. طبعا ده غلط فى غلط اما يقول Ahmed is nice. او He is nice.

8- من الأخطاء الشهيرة نسيان اضافة ال s مع الضمائر he/ she/ it ومايساويها من الاسماء عند استخدام زمن المضارع البسيط الذى يعبر عن الحقائق والعادات فمثلا تجد الطالب يكتب : He play football every day. لاحظت الخطأ؟ اكيد الخطأ انه نسى حرف s مفروض كان يكتب ويقول : plays

9- من الاخطاء الواضحة الترجمه الخاطئه للمضاف والمضاف اليه اقصد ( اسم نكرة + اسم معرفة) زى مثلا (تلوث البيئة) تجد الطالب يكتبها كده :
Pollution environmentوطبعا ده غلط طب الصح إيه؟ الصح انك لما تترجم (اسم نكرة+معرفة) تضع the قبل النكره و of بعده
فتصبح : the pollution of the environment أو: environment pollution

10- وكذلك من الاخطاء الترجمة الحرفية لحروف الجر المصاحبة لبعض الكلمات لظن الطالب ان اللغة العربية لاتختلف عن الانجليزية فى اى شيئ وهذا طبعا خطأ واليك بعض الامثلة: يساهم فى contribute to وليس contribute in / جيد فى good at مش good in لاحظ الترجمة الصحيحة لما يلى : خطر على dangerous to :/ يفكر فى think of/ about / يحلم ب dream of/ about / يشجع...على encourage ..to يمكن ..من enable …to / يثنيه ...عن discourage … from/ وهكذا
11- وكذلك من الاخطاء المعروفة الناتجة عن الاختلاف بين اللغة الانجليزية واللغة العربية ان هناك كلمات باللغة العربية جمع بينما فى الانجليزية مفرد غير معدود وتاخذ فعل مفرد وليس جمع كما هو الحال فى اللغة العربية فتجد طالب يقول : The news are good today. الصح ايه؟ معروف The news is good today.
Important Paragraphs
(1) Charitable Organizations
There are many charitable organizations all over the world. Some of them are multinational while the others are local. One of the international charities is called The Chain of Hope. It does operations on children with heart diseases. In this organization, children from poor countries are treated free of charge. In my opinion, these organizations are more important than ever as we have more and more problems with diseases and food shortages, etc. So the government and the individuals should play a role to keep them. People should give more money to these charities to let them help more people. Also, the government should facilitate their work.
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(2) Money is the root of every evil
Money is a means that can be used well or badly, so I'd rather say that the love of money is the root of all evil, not money itself. Because of money, people steal, kill and bribe. Also, people may envy each other and hate each other. Not a day passes without hearing about a bank robbery or a murder. The reason why such crimes are committed is usually the desire to make a fortune without exerting great efforts. Moreover, the wars that sweep the world are motivated by financial reasons. Even the civil wars which take place between people within the same country are based on financial affairs. In brief, we can say that although having a fortune is a blessing from God, it can be a curse if we misuse it.
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(3) My dream house
My dream house won't be in the centre of the city, but it will be on the outskirts to be far from the noise and traffic. It will be in a beautiful location may be high up on a hill, overlooking a lake or some gardens. Every room will have a balcony so that I can enjoy the view. Also, I will plant trees, vegetables and fruit in its garden. In addition, it will have a garage for my car and the cars of my visitors. My dream house will be very high-tech and I will be able to control, for example, the temperature of the rooms, or switch the TV on or off by remote control. It will also be well insulated so that in winter it will be warm and in summer it will be cool. It will be a detached house, but I hope to have friendly neighbours.
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(4) The world famous Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy
Hassan Fathy was an Egyptian architect. He is considered the pioneer of building technology in Egypt, especially by working to re-establish the use of mud brick. Fathy trained as an architect in Egypt. He graduated in 1926 from the University of King Fouad; which is now the University of Cairo. He designed his first mud brick buildings in the late 1930s. He held several governmental positions. Moreover, he was chosen as the head of Architectural Section of The Faculty of Fine Arts in Cairo. He used ancient design methods and materials. He trained local inhabitants to make their own materials and build their own buildings. Also, ancient skills affected his designs.
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(5) Professor Magdi Yacoub "A world famous heart surgeon"
Professor Magdi Yacoub is a world-famous heart surgeon. He was born in Egypt in Belbis in 1935. When his aunt died of a heart problem, he decided to be a heart surgeon. In the early 1980s, he was part of the team which did the first British heart transplant operation. Yacoub continued to research new treatments. Recently, he was part of the team which made new heart parts from human cells. If you ask why he continues to work in his 70s, he will say that he believes he can make a difference to people's lives. For this reason, he works for a charity in Africa which helps children with heart problems. He performs operations free of charge. He always operates on very young children. In fact, he is a great man.
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(6) Global Warming
Most people now accept the fact that the world's climate is changing. The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing mainly because we burn fuels such as oil and gas. The fact that we continue to destroy the rainforests (which take in carbon dioxide and produce oxygen) makes the matter worse. It is now known that the ice at the Arctic and the Antarctic is melting. If this continues, sea levels will rise and some parts of the world will be flooded, making many people homeless. So what can be done? Countries must stop destroying the rainforests and produce less carbon dioxide. We, as individuals, must all reduce the carbon dioxide we produce. This can be done by people using cars only when they have to or by turning down air conditioning in the summer.
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(7) The advantages of team work
Without team work, life would be impossible. All living creatures are in need of cooperation to live. Any complex or easy job can't be successfully achieved without cooperation. Cooperation can help all countries to overcome any threat or harm which has a bad effect on their common interests. There are many situations where groups of people such as surgeons or scientists or a sports team need to cooperate to succeed. The family members also should cooperate together to lead a happy life. Animals and birds need to cooperate to live, bring up their young and help ill family members. To succeed, you will have to show tolerance and work with other people co-operatively.
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( Healthy Food
Healthy food is very important for a healthy life. We must pay attention to the food we eat and the water we drink. Healthy food should be clean. You must wash the vegetables and fruit well before eating them. You must cover the food to prevent flies and insects from touching it. Healthy food should also be natural and organic. It is not good to eat food that was made by using dangerous additives. Organic foods are better than inorganic ones. Foods which are prepared at home are better than fast foods. The most important thing about healthy food is that it must contain all the vital substances like vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
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(9) A building in your town or city you think tourists would enjoy visiting
I think the pyramids are the most famous buildings of the historic places in the world. They are one of the seven wonders in the world. They show the greatness of our great ancestors. The pharaohs built them to bury their dead kings. They built them by using large stones and rocks which withstand all the natural disasters like the earthquakes. From all over the world, a lot of tourists come to admire these ancient building. To shed more light on that, we can say that our ancient Egyptians were great people because they left great things which make all people from all over the world admire. To sum up I can say that our duty as Egyptians to keep these buildings either ancient or modern to enable our coming generations to enjoy them.
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(10) A job that you would like to do when you finish your education.
It is known that any person should have a certain goal in life. If the person has a goal, he should exert great efforts to achieve this goal. My goal for the future is to become a doctor. I would like to do this job to serve my country, help poor people in my village and earn a lot of money. The job of the doctor has some qualities. A successful doctor should be honest, helpful, brave, patient, faithful and many other good qualities. If I want to become a doctor, I should study hard to join the faculty of medicine.
(11) Mobile phone
In fact the mobile phone is one of the most important inventions .However, it has some advantages and some disadvantages .First of all ,we can start with its advantages. It enables people to contact each other easily at any time in any place .It is small enough to carry. It is useful for some people who work in remote areas such as engineers and businessmen. It is important for us in case of danger or troubles. On the other hand, it has some disadvantages. Some doctors think that it causes some serious diseases. It also makes people lazy because it prevents them from visiting each other .To sum up , we can say it is advisable for people to use it only when necessary to avoid its serious side effects.
(12) A book that you have enjoyed reading recently
It is known that reading is very important for us and it is the food of our souls .We also increase our knowledge through reading. Reading stories helps us forget our worries. I have read the stories of Gulliver's travels. Gulliver's Travels was published and became a great success. Different people have different explanations for this. To some it was an imaginative children's story, to others it was a clever commentary on the politics of the day Finally, reading stories is very enjoyable.
(13) A form of exercise that you enjoy doing
It is important for us to get proper exercise in our life. There are many forms of exercises like running, walking, swimming….etc .All these exercise will help us feel our best. It is advisable to do the exercises which are suitable for us .The form of exercise I like doing is running. This exercise is very useful for my muscles .It also makes my body strong and renews my activity. It is easy to practise and doesn't cost us any money. We should this exercise for improving our health and it prevents many diseases such as heart diseases and depression. For the previous reasons I am keen on doing this exercise regularly.
(14) The importance of the money
No one can ignore that money is a mixed blessing. نعمة ونقمة in other words, it is a good servant but a bad master. On the one hand, money helps us to get all our needs but we should not earn it in a dishonest way. With the help of money problems can be solved. Money makes money and with money people can lead a comfortable life. On the other hand money is the root of all evils. For the sake of getting money some people deceive, kill and commit crimes. Wars are waged تشعل الحروب and thousands of people are killed because of money.
(15) The importance of cooperation in life
Without cooperation, life would be impossible. All living creatures are in need of cooperation to live .Any complex or easy job can't be successfully achieved without cooperation . Cooperation can help all countries to overcome any threat or harm which has a bad effect on their common interests. There are many situations where groups of people such as surgeons or scientists or a sports team need to cooperate to succeed. The family members also should cooperate together to lead a happy life .Animals and birds need to cooperate. To succeed, you will have to show tolerance and work with these people.
(16) The importance of rules and the bad results of breaking them
Rules are important because they help people to work together make it possible to organize things and to cooperate. They help to make sure things run smoothly and that people know what other people will do in certain situations. If there are no rules or people break the rules. People don't know what others will do in certain situations and makes life unpredictable. People can get hurt .Cars can crash and there could be a complete lack of order.
(17) Why do you think some people do dangerous hobbies?
Nobody knows the real reasons why people choose these exciting hobbies. Professional mountaineers climb for money, but for many others, climbing a great mountain is a lifelong ambition. Some people not only do climb for themselves but also they do for their country. Most people want to conquer something during their life. When they do this, they feel that they have reached their goal and they feel fantastic.
(18) The Olympic Games
The Olympic Games are a way for people to have contact with other nations and come together. Through them, countries can learn about the heroes of other places in the world. Countries have to cooperate for a successful Olympic Games, and so they have helped to develop understanding and respect between nations, Governments can provide sports facilities for sportsmen and sportswomen. They benefit because the host nations get lots of publicity and so a lot of attention is focused on them. International sport also allows smaller or poorer nations to excel .They allow cultures to come into contact because people travel and meet and are exposed to other cultures.
(19) The importance of sports and games" or “The value of sports
No one can ignoreيتجاهل that games and sports are very important in our life .Sports and games are encouraged everywhere in Egypt because they make our bodies strong, prevent us from getting too fat and keep us healthy. Games and sports make people lead a healthy and active life. They can join clubs to Practise their favourite sports, enjoy their time and feel great happiness. Sports and games teach our youth disciplineالنظام, co-operation, the sense of belongingالشعور بالانتماء and protect them against deviationالانحراف and taking drugs. It is important for us to get proper exercise in our life. There are many forms of exercises like running, walking, swimming….etc .All these exercise will help us feel our best. It is advisable to do the exercises which are suitable for us .The form of exercise I like to do is running. This exercise is very useful for my muscles .It makes my body strong and renews my activity. It is easy to practise and doesn't cost us any money. We should be keen on doing for improving our health.
(20) Shopping online
It is known that many people prefer online shopping for many reasons. Things are cheaper for customers to buy and they have more choice because they can shop in many different places, looking for the cheapest prices. They can buy everything online and shop from home. They don't have to go to the shops, so it is quick and convenient. On the other hand ,for customers, it can be risky because of credit card fraud. You can only buy online if you have a credit card, so children often find it hard to shop online .Also, older people and people who don't have experience using a computer might find it difficult .You cannot actually see the products, only pictures of them. You don't buy them and take them away. The products might be delivered late and you have to wait for them. Sometimes the wrong products are sent or they arrive damaged or do not arrive at all.
(21) The Egyptian food you would like people from other countries to try
Thousands of years ago, ancient Egyptians left evidence of their love for food. Well-preserved wall paintings and carvings have been discovered on tombs and temples .Many of these ancient foods are still eaten in Egyptian households today. Peas, beans, cucumbers, dates, figs, and grapes were popular fruits and vegetables in ancient times.In Egypt, most establishments use native ingredients and will offer fruits and vegetables in season. Many of the smaller, Egyptian-style restaurants specialize in basic meat and bean dishes. For most Egyptians, meat is a luxury used in small amounts, cooked with vegetables, and served with or over rice.
(22) How you think people could protect the environment in you town or city
It is clear that our environment is exposed to a great danger because the climate has become more warming than before .All of us must co-operate and stand as a one man to put and end to this serious problem which threatens our life .For example we must reduce the amount of chemicals , carbon dioxide and energy . We can also grow plants because the trees purify the air through getting carbon dioxide and emitting oxygen necessary for life. In brief , we must exert great efforts to solve this problem which threatens our life on and to lead a happy life free from problems.
(23) How to encourage our local products
Allah has gifted Egypt many natural resources which we can make good use to become the richest country in the world. We should encourage people to increase double the number of small and big companies due to increase of local demand. . We should encourage local projects to take part in the international competition; Egypt can encourage the Arab and foreign investors to set up projects in
(24) A building in your town or city you think tourists would enjoy visiting
I think the pyramids are the most famous buildings of the historic places in the world .They are one of the seven wonders in the world .They show the greatness of our great ancestors .The pharaohs built them to burry their dead kings .They built them by using large stones and rocks which withstand all the natural disasters like the earthquakes. A lot of tourists from all over the world come to admire our these ancient building. To shed more light on that , we can say that our ancient Egyptians were great people because they left us great things which make all people from all over the world admire . To sum up I can say that our duty as Egyptians to keep these buildings either ancient or modern to enable our coming generations to enjoy them .
(25) Describing a place that is off the beaten track
Most travellers to Egypt visit the famous sites in Cairo and Upper Egypt but Egypt has many other interesting historical places which a
re off t
he beaten
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عدد المساهمات : 22
نقاط : 58
السٌّمعَة : 1
تاريخ التسجيل : 08/02/2012
العمر : 52
الموقع : مديريه التربيه والتعليم بالغربيه اداره طنطا التعليميه

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